AP0272 - Bio-oil and bio-char from low temperature pyrolysis of spent grains using activated alumina
The pyrolysis of spent grains resulting from bio-ethanol and beer production was investigated at temperatures between 460 and 540ºC using an activated alumina bed. The results showed that the bio-oil yield and quality depend principally on the applied temperature where pyrolysis at 460ºC leaves a bio-oil with lower nitrogen content in comparison with the original spent grains and low oxygen content.
Sulphur dioxide (SO2) is a pollutant gas produced by various human activities such as the operation of industrial boilers and the burning of fossil fuel at power plants. Stringent environmental regulations limiting atmospheric SOx emissions encourage the research of more efficient ways to reduce them. Many new strategies have been proposed.
At present, more than 90% of the hydrogen produced commercially comes from the steam reforming of fossil fuels; if the environmental benefits of the “hydrogen economy” are to be realised, a renewable and cost effective source of hydrogen is required. Replacing fossil fuels with biomass is a possible solution but the low hydrogen content of biomass (~6.5% compared to ~25% in natural gas) makes reforming uneconomic.
The chemical study of radiofrequency (RF) sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) plasma, either pure or mixed with other gases such as oxygen (O2), methane (CH4) and argon (Ar), is growing everyday due to different applications in the semiconductor industry. Plasma etching of materials such as silicon (Si), silicon dioxide (SiO2) and others, allows one to integrate the sensor structures with electronics making possible the formation of trench structures for construction of basic electronics components such as capacitors, resistors, etc in micro/nano scale.
The deactivation of a commercial Ni/Al2O3 catalyst in the liquid phase hydrogenation of crude 1,4-butanediol aqueous solution was investigated. H2-TPD experiments have been performed over the fresh and deactivated catalysts in order to determine the change in metal dispersion. In this experiment the gaseous products were monitored as a function of temperature using a HIDEN model QIC-20 mass detector...
TiO2 photocatalytic reactions for organic synthesis have recently been the subject of many reports. The choice and reaction conditions of catalysts are very important in the phenol hydroxylation using H2O2 as oxidant. In this study, a new type of photocatalyst based on silicate (Fe-Al-silicate) was prepared and characterized with a goal to effective utilizing in photocatalytic organic synthesis of dihydroxybenzenes from phenol...
A new autothermal route to produce hydrogen from natural gas via chemical looping technology was investigated. Nowadays, 90% of the worldwide produced hydrogen comes from fossil fuels, the most common process being Steam Methane Reforming (SMR), which produces several kg of CO2 equivalent per kg of hydrogen. In classic SMR technology, most of the greenhouse gases are vented to the atmosphere. Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC) is a promising concept based on circulating fluidized beds to combust solid, liquid and gaseous fuels with inherent CO2 capture and minimal NOx formation. Chemical Looping Reforming (CLR) utilizes similar principles as CLC but the objective of CLR is hydrogen, as opposed to energy for CLC.
Hydrogen as an energy vector in combination with fuel cells is one of the emerging energy solution in terms of sustainability and low environmental impact. H2 sustainable production is therefore one of the key target of today. Recently, the Materials, Environment and Energy research group at the University of Trieste, coordinated by Professor Paolo Fornasiero investigated various options for H2 production and purification by using a Hiden HPR 20 quadrupole mass spectrometer.
The need to reduce anthropogenic CO2 emissions has been the driving force to consider new approaches and novel ideas for CO2 management, and carbon capture and storage (CCS) are considered to potentially be the most effective means to alleviate the problem. The most common method for CO2 capture is via gas absorption, with monoethanol amine (MEA) being the most widely used solvent.
Differential electrochemical mass spectrometry (DEMS) involves applying a potential across an electrochemical cell and measuring the resulting current while concurrently analyzing gas products with a mass spectrometer. We used DEMS to investigate the mechanism of carbon support corrosion (CSC) in-situ at the cathode of proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). The cathode exhaust gases were sampled with a Hiden Analytical QIC-20 mass spectrometer.